NUTRITION & BIOCHEMISTRY

 

Nutrition

Placement: First Year                                                                                      Theory 60-hours

                                                                                                                                 (Class 45 + lab 15)

                                                                                   

Course Description: The Course is designed to assist the students to acquire knowledge of the normal biochemical composition and functioning of human body and understand the alterations in biochemistry in diseases for practice of nursing.

 

Specific objectives: At the end of the course the students will be able to

 

1.             To Understand the concept of nutrition & health.

2.             Understand different types of nutrients, their importance, sources, functions and problems due to deficiency.

3.             To plan balanced diet for individuals and groups.

4.             Plan menu efficiently.

5.             Explain methods of effective cooking and food preservation.

6.             Apply the principles of food preparation in the practical field effectively

 

 

 

Unit

Time (Hrs)

Learning objectives

Content

Teaching Learning Activities

Evaluation

I

T=4

·   Describe the relationship between nutrition & Health.

 

Introduction

· Nutrition:

q History

q Concepts

·  Role of nutrition in maintaining health

·       Nutritional problems in India

·       National nutritional policy

·       Factors affecting food & nutrition : socio-economic, cultural, tradition, production, system of distribution, life style & food habits etc

·       Role of food & its medicinal value

·       Classification of foods

·       Food standards

·       Elements of nutrition: macro and micro

·       Calorie, BMR

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

·  Panel  

  Discussion

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

II

T=2

·   Describe the classification, functions, sources and recommended daily allowances (RDA) of carbohydrates

 

Carbohydrates

· Classification

· Caloric value

· Recommended daily allowances

· Dietary sources.

· Functions

· Digestion, absorption and storage, metabolism of carbohydrates

· Malnutrition: Deficiencies and Over consumption

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

III

T=2

·   Describe the classification, functions, sources and recommended daily allowances (RDA) of Fats.

 

FATS

·  Classification

· Caloric value

· Recommended daily allowances

· Dietary sources.

· Functions

· Digestion, absorption and storage, metabolism 

* Malnutrition: Deficiencies and Over consumption

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

IV

T=4

 

·   Describe the classification, functions, sources and recommended daily allowances (RDA) of Proteins.

 

 

Proteins

· Classification

· Caloric value

· Recommended daily allowances

· Dietary sources.

· Functions

· Digestion, absorption and storage, metabolism of carbohydrates

* Malnutrition: Deficiencies and Over consumption

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

V

T=4

·   Describe the classification, functions, sources and recommended daily allowances (RDA) of Energy.

 

 Energy

· Unit of Energy -Kcal

· Energy requirements of different categories of people.

· Measurements of energy

· Body Mass Index (BMI) and basic metabolism

· Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)   - determination and factors affecting

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

·  Exercise

Demonstration

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

VI

T=4

*Describe the classification, functions, sources and recommended daily allowances (RDA) of Vitamins.

Vitamins

· Classification

· Recommended daily allowances

· Dietary sources.

· Functions

· Absorption, synthesis, metabolism storage & excretion

·  Deficiencies

· Hypervitaminosis

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

VII

T=4

Describe the classification, functions, sources and recommended daily allowances (RDA) of Minerals.

 

Minerals

· Classification

· Recommended daily allowances

· Dietary sources.

· Functions

· Absorption, synthesis, metabolism storage & excretion

·  Deficiencies

· Over consumption and toxicity

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

VIII

T=3

Describe the sources, functions and requirements of water & electrolytes

Water & electrolytes

· Water: Daily requirements, regulation of water metabolism, distribution of body water,

· Electrolytes: Types, sources, composition of body fluids.

· Maintenance of fluid & electrolyte balance

· Over hydration, dehydration and water intoxication

· Electrolyte imbalances

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  Using charts

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

IX

10 Hrs

T=5

P=5

*Describe the Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients

 * Prepare & serve simple beverages & different types of foods

 

 

Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients

· Principles, methods of cooking and serving

q Preservation of nutrients

· Safe food handling –toxicity

· Storage of food

· Food preservation, food additives and its principles

· Prevention of food adulteration Act(PFA)

· Food standards

·  Lecture

Discussion

·                 Demonstration

·     Practice session

 

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

·       Assessment practice sessions

X

10 Hrs

T=0

P=10

·   Describe and plan balanced diet for different categories of people

 

Balance diet

· Elements

· Food groups

· Recommended Daily Allowance

· Nutritive value of foods

· Calculation of balanced diet for different categories of people

· Factors influencing food selection, marketing and budgeting for various cultural and socioeconomic group

· Planning menu

· Introduction to therapeutic diets: Naturopathy-Diet

· Demonstration:

Fluid diet, Egg flip, Soup, barley water, whey water

Soft diet: custard, Caramel custard, kanji, jelly

Semisolid diet: Khichadi, mashed potatoes, kheer

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining   

  using charts

·  Practice session

·     Meal Planning

 

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

·     Exercise on menu planning

XI

T=4

·   Describe various national programmes related to nutrition

·   Describe the role of nurse in assessment of  nutritional status & nutrition education.

 

Role of nurse in nutritional Programmes

·       National programmes related to nutrition

·       Vitamin A deficiency programme

·        National iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) programme

·       Mid-Day meal programme

·       Integrated child development scheme (ICDS)

·       National and International agencies working towards food/nutrition

·       NIPCCD, CARE, FAO, NIN, CFTRI (Central food technology & research institute) etc.

·       Assessment of nutritional status

·       Nutrition education and role of nurse

 

·  Lecture

   Discussion

·  Explaining with

·  Slide/film shows

·   Demonstration of Assessment of nutritional status

 

·     Short answers

·       Objective type

 

 

 

 

Bibliography :

1)     Shubhangi Joshi, Nutrition and Dietetics 2nd edition, Tata McGraw – Hill publishing company Limited, New Delhi, 2002.

2)     Dr. M. Swaminathan, Handbook of Food and Nutrition, The Banglore printing and publishing Co. Ltd. (Banglore press) 2004.

3)     C. Gopalan, B. V. Ramasastri and S.C. Balasubramanian Nutritive value of Indian Foods, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad 1999.

4)     Joshi V.D. Handbook of Nutrition and Dietetics vora medical publications, 1999.

5)     Kusum Gupta (L. C.Guple, Abhishek Gupta) Food and Nutrition Facts and Figures, 5th edition Jaypee brothers Medical publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi, India 2003.

6)     T. K. Indrani, Nursing Manual of Nutrition and Therapeutic Diet, 1st edition Jaypee Brothers medical publishers (P) Ltd., 2003.          

7)     Antia – Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition, ed., 4th.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biochemistry

                                                                                               

Placement: First Year                                                                                    Theory – 30 hours

                       

                                                                                   

Course Description: The Course is designed to assist the students to acquire knowledge of the normal biochemical composition and functioning of human body and understand the alterations in biochemistry in diseases for practice of nursing.

 

Specific objectives: at the end of the course the students will be able to:

1) To understand normal biochemistry of human body

2) To understand biochemical changes occurring in illness

3) To assist with simple biochemical test, interpret the results and draw inference.

 

 

 

Unit

Time

(Hrs)

Objectives

Content

Teaching Learning Activities

Assessment methods

I

3

·    Describe the structure Composition and functions of cell

·    Differentiate between Prokaryote and Eukaryote cell

·    Identify techniques of Microscopy

Introduction

·     Definition and significance in nursing.

·     Review of structure, Composition and functions of cell.

·     Prokaryote and Eukaryote cell organization

·     Microscopy

 

·  Lecture discussion using charts, slides

·  Demonstrate use of microscope

·  Short answer questions

·  Objective type.

II

6

·    Describe the Structure and functions of Cell membrane

 

Structure and functions of Cell membrane

·     Fluid mosaic model tight junction, Cytoskeleton

·     Transport mechanism: diffusion, osmosis, filtration, active channel, sodium pump.

·     Acid base balance-maintenance & diagnostic tests.

o  PH buffers

·  Lecture

   Discussion

 

·  Short answer questions

·  Objective 

   type.

III

6

·    Explain the metabolism of carbohydrates

Composition and metabolism of carbohydrates

·   Types, structures, composition and uses.

o  Monosaccharides , Disaccharides, Polysaccharides,

   Oligosaccharides

·   Metabolism

o  Pathways of glucose :

-   Clycolysis

-   Gluconeogenesis : Cori’s cycle, Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

-   Glycogenolosys

-   Pentose phosphate pathways (Hexose mono phosphate)

o  Regulation of blood glucose level

Investigations and their interpretations.

·   Lecture discussion

·   Demonstration of blood glucose monitoring

·  Short answer questions

·  Objective 

     type.

IV

4

·   Explain the metabolism of Lipids

Composition and metabolism of Lipids

·     Types, structure, composition and uses of fatty acids

o       Nomenclature, Roles and Prostaglandins

·     Metabolism of fatty acid

  • Breakdown
  • Synthesis

·     Metabolism of triacylglycerols

·     Cholesterol metabolism

  • Biosynthesis and its Regulation

-         Bile salts and bilirubin

-         Vitamin D

-         Steroid hormones

·     Lipoproteins and their functions :

o   VLDLs- IDLs, LDLs and HDLs

o   Transport of lipids

o   Atherosclerosis

    Investigations and their interpretations.

·  Lecture Discussion using charts

·  Demonstration of laboratory tests

·  Short answer questions

·  Objective 

     type.

V

6

·    Explain the metabolism of Lipids

Composition and metabolism of Amino acids and Proteins

·  Types, structure, composition and uses of Amino acids and Proteins

·  Metabolism of Amino acids and Proteins

o  Protein synthesis, targeting and glycosylation

o  Chromatography

o  Electrophoresis

o  Sequencing

·  Metabolism of Nitrogen

o   Fixation and Assimilation

o   Urea Cycle

o   Hemes and chlorophylls

 

 

·  Enzymes and co-enzymes

o  Classification

o  Properties

o  Kinetics and inhibition

o  Control

Investigations and their interpretations.

·  Lecture discussion

·  Demonstration of blood glucose monitoring

·  Short answer questions

·  Objective 

     type.

VI

2

·    Describe types, composition and utilization of Vitamins & minerals

Composition of Vitamins and minerals

·     Vitamins and minerals:

o       Structure

o       Classification

o       Properties

o       Absorption

o       Storage & transportation

o       Normal concentration

Investigations and their interpretations

·  Lecture Discussion using charts

·  Demonstration of laboratory tests

·  Short answer questions

·  Objective 

     type.

VII

3

·  Describe Lmmunochemistry

Immunochemistry

·     Immune response,

·     Structure and classification of immunoglobins

·     Mechanism of antibody production.

·     Antigens: HLA typing.

·     Free radical and Antoxidants.

·     Specialised Protein : Collagen, Elastin, Keratin, Myosin, Lens Protein.

·     Electrophoretic and Quantitative determination of immunoglobins

    - ELISA etc.

Investigation and their interpretations.

·  Lecture discussion

·  Demonstration laboratory tests

·  Short answer questions

·  Objective 

     type.

 

 

Bibliography :

1. U. Satyanarayan, Essentials of biochemistry, Books & allied (P) Ltd., Kolkata publisher, 2004.

2. Deb A.C.: Concepts of biochemistry (Theory & Practical) 1st edition, books & allied (P) Ltd.
    Publisher, Kolkata, 1999.

3. Deb. A.C. Fundamentals of biochemistry of biochemistry: 1st edition New central book Ag (P)
    Ltd., 2004.

4. Jacob Anthikad, Biochemistry for nurses; 2nd edition, Jaypee; 2001..

5. Gupta. R.C., Multiple choice questions in Biochemistry, 2nd edition, Jaypee, 2004.

           

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluation Scheme

 

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT                                                                            25 marks       

 

I Subject: - Nutrition and Biochemistry

 

Theory Examination

                       

 

Nutrition

 Biochemistry

TOTAL MARKS

AVERAGE

OUT OF

Periodical             

15

10

25

-

Mid-Term           

35

15

50

 

Pre-Final 

45

30

75

-

 

 

Total

150

15

Laboratory (Practicum)

25

25

50

10

 

 

 

Total

25

 

 

 

 

 

 


Evaluation Criteria for Nurtration (Practicum):  25 marks

                       

S.No.

Items

Marks

1

 

2

 

3

Selection of menu for specific group

Calculation of relative requirement

Presentation and recording

 

5

 

10

 

10

 

                     Total

       25

 

            (25 to be converted into 5marksfor nutrition assignment)

 

 

Biochemistry

 

Evaluation Criteria for Biochemistry (journal):  25 marks

 

Sr. No

Items

Marks

1

2

3

4

5

 Investigations related to altered CHO metabolism

Investigations related to altered protein metabolism

Investigations related to altered lipid metabolism

Investigations related to altered vitamins and minerals

Investigations related to altered immunochemistry

05

05

05

05

05

 

                                                             Total

25

 

                        (25 to be converted into 5marksfor nutrition assignment)

 

 

External ASSESSMENT

University examination                                                                                                75 marks

Section A : Nutrition               :           45 marks

Section B : Biochemistry        :           30 marks

                                                                                                                                   

 

 

 

abab